Presence and Lingering: Psychoanalysis in a Mindfulness Frame
Nowadays mindfulness has become a constituent element in various forms of psychotherapy, including psychoanalysis. This essay is my attempt to think about psychoanalysis and mindfulness together, from the starting point of Freud’s recommendation of “evenly hovering attention” as the essential psychoanalytic stance. I will look at how mindfulness and psychoanalysis could enrich each other, with a view to placing them within a framework of listening practice that might contribute to our understanding of psychotherapy.
Bateman, A., & Fonagy, P. (2004). Psychotherapy for borderline personality disorder: Mentalization-based treatment. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Bateman, A., & Fonagy, P. (2006). Mentalization-based treatment for borderline personality disorder: A practical guide. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Bentall, R. P. (2009). Doctoring the mind: Why psychiatric treatments fail. London, UK: Allen Lane (2009)
Beutler, L. E. (2002). The Dodo bird is extinct. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 9, 30–34.
Bion, W. R. (1967). Notes on memory and desire. The Psychoanalytic Forum, 2, 272-273.
Blue, A. W., Darou, W. G., & Ruano, C. (2015). Through silence we speak: Approaches to counselling and psychotherapy with Canadian First Nation clients. Online Readings in Psychology and Culture, 10. Retrieved from
Bodhidharma (1987). The Zen teaching of Bodhidharma. Port Townsend, WA: Empty Bowl.
Bollas, C. (1992). Being a character: Psychoanalysis and self experience. London, UK: Routledge.
Bollas, C. (2009). The infinite question. Hove, UK: Routledge.
Bromberg, P. M. (1994). “Speak! That I may see you!”: Some reflections on
dissociation, reality, and psychoanalytic listening. Psychoanalytic Dialogues, 4, 517-547.
Casement, P. (1985). On learning from the patient. London, UK: Tavistock.
Casement, P. (1990). Further learning from the patient: The analytic space and process. London, UK: Routledge.
Casement, P. (2002). Learning from our mistakes: Beyond dogma in psychoanalysis and psychotherapy. Hove, UK: Brunner-Routledge.
Casement, P. (2006). Learning from life: Becoming a psychoanalyst. Hove, UK: Routledge.
Catty, J. (2004). ‘The vehicle of success’: Theoretical and empirical perspectives on the therapeutic alliance in psychotherapy and psychiatry. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 77, 255-272.
Chambless, D. L. (2002). Beware the Dodo bird: The dangers of overgeneralization. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice 9, 13-16.
Coltart, N. (1998) Slouching towards Buddhism: in conversation with Anthony Molino. In A. Molino (Ed.), The Couch and the Tree (pp. 176-193). New York, NY: North Point Press.
Cox, M., & Theilgaard, A. (1987). Mutative metaphors in psychotherapy: The Aeolian Mode. London, UK: Tavistock.
Crane, R. S. (2017). Implementing mindfulness in the mainstream: Making the path by walking it. Mindfulness, 8, 585-594.
Davies, A. (2007). Contemplating Silence: A review of understandings and clinical handling of patient silence in psychoanalytic psychotherapy. Unpublished dissertation, Auckland University of Technology, New Zealand. Retrieved from https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/56361462.pdf
Dupont, J. (1988). Introduction. In S. Ferenczi (edited by J. Dupont). The clinical diary of Sándor Ferenczi (pp. xi-xxvii). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Epstein, M. D. (1984). On the neglect of evenly suspended attention. The Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 16, 193-205.
Falkenström, F. (2003). A Buddhist contribution to the psychoanalytic psychology of Self. The International Journal Psychoanalysis, 84, 1551-1568.
Falkenström, F. (2012). The Capacity for Self-Observation in Psychotherapy. Unpublished dissertation, Linköping University, Sweden.
Ferenczi, S. (1988). The clinical diary of Sándor Ferenczi (edited by J. Dupont and translated by M. Balint & N. Z. Jackson). Cambridge, MA: Harvard
Fink, B. (2007). Fundamentals of psychoanalytic technique: A Lacanian approach for practitioners. New York, NY: Norton & Co.
Fischer-Lichte, E. (2004/2008). The transformative of performance: A new aesthetics. Abingdon, UK: Routledge.
Freud, S. (2002). Advice to doctors on psychoanalytic In Sigmund Freud: Wild analysis (pp. 31-41). London, UK: Penguin Books. (Original work 1912)
Freud, S. (2002). On initiating treatment. In Sigmund Freud: Wild analysis (pp. 31-41) London, UK: Penguin Books. (original work published 1913)
Freud, S. (1985). The complete letters of Sigmund Freud to Wilhelm Fliess 1887-1904. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Freud, S. (2002). Sigmund Freud: Wild analysis. London, UK: Penguin Books.
Geerardyn, F. (2002). Unconscious communication and the resistance of the psychoanalyst. Psychoanalytische Perspectieven, 20, 591-601.
Geller, S. M., & Greenberg, L. S. (2012). Therapeutic presence: A mindful to effective therapy. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Gilbert, P. (2009). The compassionate mind. London, UK: Constable.
Ginsburg, S. A. (2017). Book review of Creative listening and the psychoanalytic process: Sensibility, engagement and envisioning by F. L. Griffin. The Psychoanalytic Quarterly, LXXXVI, Number 3, 731-737.
Graybar, S. R., & Leonard, L. M. (2005). In defense of listening. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 59, 1-18.
Greenberg, J. R. (1986). The problem of analytic neutrality. Contemporary Psychoanalysis, 22, 76-86.
Griffin, F. L. (2016). Creative listening and the psychoanalytic process: Sensibility, engagement and envisioning. Abington, UK: Routledge.
Gupta, R. (2008). To the analyzing instrument and beyond: Reconstructing evenly hovering attention. Unpublished Masters dissertation, Auckland University of Technology.
Harrington, A., & Dunne, J. D. (2015). When mindfulness is therapy: Ethical qualms, historical perspectives. American Psychologist, 70, 621-631.
Hayes, S. C. (2002). Acceptance, mindfulness, and science. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 9, 101-106.
Hayes, S. C., Luoma, J. B., Bond, F. W., Masuda, A., & Lillis, J. (2006). Acceptance and commitment therapy: Model, process and outcomes. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 44, 1-25.
Hobson, R. F. (1985). Forms of feeling: The heart of psychotherapy. London, UK: Tavistock.
Holmes, J. (2013). Book review of Psychoanalysis and psychoanalytic therapies by Jeremy D. Safran. Psychoanalytic Psychology, 30, 102-104.
Hooke, M. T. S. (nd). The internal attitude of the analyst at work: From Freud’s free floating attention to Bion’s reverie. Retrieved from www.doppio-sogno.it/numero13/ing/1.pdf
Jung, C. G. (1978). Psychology and the East. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Kernberg, O. (2014). Innovation in psychoanalytic education. New Associations (British Psychoanalytic Council Newsletter), 16, 9-11.
Klein, D. F. (2002). Dodo deliberations. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 9, 28-29.
Kurtz, S. A. (1984). On silence. Psychoanalytic Review, 71, 227-246.
Lane, R. C., Koetting, M. G., & Bishop, J. (2002). Silence as communication in psychodynamic psychotherapy. Clinical Psychology Review, 22, 1091-1104.
Lear, J. (1998). Open minded: Working out the logic of the soul. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Lear, J. (2003). Therapeutic action: An earnest plea for irony. London, UK: Karnac.
Lear, J. (2004). Psychoanalysis and the idea of a moral psychology: memorial to Bernard Williams’ philosophy. Inquiry, 47, 515-522.
Lear, J. (2014). Mourning and moral psychology. Psychoanalytic Psychology, 31, 470-481.
Leone, G. (1995). Zen meditation: A psychoanalytic conceptualization. The Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 27, 87-94.
Li, C. (2010). When time stood still… Rowan Williams, waiting and psychotherapy. The Journal of Critical Psychology, Counselling and Psychotherapy, 10, 146-153.
Li, C. (2018). Where words trap the mind: The bewitchment of psychotherapy. Language and Psychoanalysis, 7, 84-105.
Lin, P., & Seiden, H. M. (2014). Mindfulness and psychoanalytic psychotherapy: A clinical convergence. Psychoanalytic Psychology. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0038170
Linehan, M. M. (1993). Cognitive-behavioral treatment of borderline personality disorder. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Loewald, H. W. (1960). On the therapeutic action of psycho-analysis. International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 41, 16-33.
Lomas, P. (1981). The case for a personal psychotherapy. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Lomas, P. (1994). Cultivating intuition: An introduction to psychotherapy. London, UK: Penguin.
Lomas, P. (1999). Doing good? Psychotherapy out of its depth. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Luborsky, L. (2002). The Dodo bird verdict is alive and well ― mostly. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice 9, 2–12.
Mace, C. (2008). Mindfulness and the future of psychotherapy. European Psychotherapy, 8, 123-139.
Maitland, S. (2008). A book of silence. London, UK: Granta.
Makise, H. (2017). Lacanian psychoanalysis and Japanese Zen (Hakuin Zen): The relation between ‘the impossible thing’, drawings, and topology. Annual Review of Critical Psychology, 13, 1-15 (Page numbers pertain to this paper only, not the entire journal issue). Retrieved from https://discourseunit.com/annual-review/arcp-13-discourse-unit-global-seminar-2017/
McAleavey, A. A., & Castonguay, L. G. (2015). The process of change in psychotherapy: Common and unique factors. In O. C. G. Gelo, A. Pritz, & B.
Rieken (Eds), Psychotherapy research: Foundations, process, and outcome (pp. 293-310). New York, NY: Springer.
Messer, S. B. (2002). Let’s face facts: Common factors are more potent than specific therapy ingredients. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 9, 21-25.
Moncayo, P. (2012). The signifier pointing at the moon: Psychoanalysis and Zen Buddhism. London, UK: Karnac.
Nietzsche, F. (1973). Beyond good and evil: Prelude to a philosophy of the future. Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin Books. (Original work published 1886)
Phillips, A. (2002). Introduction. In Sigmund Freud: Wild analysis (pp. vii–xxv). London, UK: Penguin Books.
Phillips, A. (2014) Becoming Freud: the making of a psychoanalyst. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Proner, B. D. (2006). A word about words. Journal of Analytical Psychology, 51, 423-435.
Reik, T. (1927/1968). The psychological meaning of silence. Psychoanalytic Review, 55, 172-186.
Reik, T. (1948). Listening with the third ear: The inner experience of a psychoanalyst. New York, NY: Farrar, Straus & Co.
Rounsaville, B. J., & Carroll, K. M. (2002). Commentary on Dodo bird revisited: Why aren’t we Dodos yet? Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice 9, 17-20.
Safran, J. D. (Ed.) (2003a). Psychoanalysis and Buddhism: An unfolding dialogue.
Somerville, MA: Wisdom Publications.
Safran, J. D. (2003b). Introduction: Psychoanalysis and Buddhism as cultural
Institutions. In J. D. Safran (Ed.) Psychoanalysis and Buddhism: An unfolding dialogue (pp. 1-34). Somerville, MA: Wisdom Publications.
Safran, J. D. (2011). Theodor Reik’s Listening with the Third Ear and the role of self- analysis in contemporary psychoanalytic thinking. Psychoanalytic Review, 98, 205-216.
Schneider, K. J. (2002). The Dodo bird: Less a verdict than an opportunity. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice 9, 26-27.
Segal, Z. V., Williams, J. M. G., & Teasdale, J. D. (2002). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for depression. New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Škodlar, B. (2016). Applications of mindfulness in psychotherapy ― Contemporary dilemmas. Asian Studies IV (XX), 2, 123-138.
Sloma, J. T. (2010). Rhythms of psychoanalysis and counterpoints of therapeutic spontaneity. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the International Forum for Psychoanalytic Education Nashville, Tennessee, October 29, 2010.
Retrieved from https://ifpe.files.wordpress.com/2011/04/rhythms-of-psychoanalysis1.pdf
Speeth, K. R. (1982). On psychotherapeutic attention. The Journal of Transpersonal Psychology, 14, 141-160.
Suler, J. (1995). In search of the self: Zen Buddhism and psychoanalysis. Psychoanalytic Review, 82, 407-426.
Suzuki, D. T., Fromm, E., & de Martino, R. (1960). Zen Buddhism and psychoanalysis. London, UK: Allen & Unwin.
Symington, J., & Symington, N. (1996). The clinical thinking of Wilfred Bion. London, UK: Routledge.
van Waning, A. (2002). A mindful self and beyond: Sharing in the ongoing dialogue of Buddhism and psychoanalysis. In P. Young-Eisendrath, & S. Muramoto (Eds.), Awakening and insight Zen Buddhism and psychotherapy (pp. 91-102).
Hove East, UK: Brunner-Routledge.
Warin, T. (2007). Silence in psychotherapy: Therapists’ difficulties in using silence as a therapeutic technique. Unpublished dissertation, Auckland University of Technology, New Zealand. Retrieved from
Weiss, H. (2009). The use of mindfulness in psychodynamic and body oriented psychotherapy. Body, Movement and Dance in Psychotherapy, 4, 5-16.
Williams, R. (2002). Writing in the dust: Reflections on 11th September and its aftermath. London, UK: Hodder & Stoughton.
Wood, J. (2008). How fiction works. London, UK: Vintage Books.
P. Young-Eisendrath, & S. Muramoto (Eds.) (2002). Awakening and Insight Zen Buddhism and psychotherapy. Hove East Essex, UK: Brunner-Routledge.
This is an Open Access journal. All material is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) licence, unless otherwise stated.
Please read our Open Access, Copyright and Permissions policies for more information.